Accessing Data with Flex - Adobe Inc.

The motion to delay and revise the re-entry plan is not a binary issue. Don't buy the politics.

TLDR:
People are being goaded into taking sides on whether or not we should open schools. This is not the issue at hand when considering the motions made by Mr. Shurr at the most recent Special Session of the school board. The issue at hand is whether the current plan (Published June 30) is the most inventive solution we can offer that minimizes the risk of lifelong disability and/or death for the students and, more immediately, the many high-risk adults who work in the public schools around the country. If you’ve ever been in an American workplace, you know that leaders (especially exhausted ones) can find running out the clock on a decision period more desirable than engaging in critical discussion. With stakes as high as they are, the motions are meant to ensure this does not happen with our public schools.
Here is a link to the most critical 20 minutes of the Special Session of the school board meeting from Tuesday, July 21st.
The Details:
This is a throwaway account, and an attempt at a complete statement of my opinion. This does not reflect anyone’s opinion but my own based on public information. Feel free to share any and all of this if you’d like. I don’t plan to respond to comments or DMs.
A considerable number of parents, students, and teachers (many of whom are at high risk of contracting COVID-19 or live with an elder who is) feel the traditional school model poses too much risk and that we need to pause and revise the plan. Fairly, many people who need the child care/specialized services provided by the schools have voiced their frustration and unwillingness to support such a measure because they believe this must mean that schools will be closed for an extended period of time. This fabricated binary allows an outdated plan to look preferable to pausing and revising because:
All this said, the parents who need their students in school are justified in their attitudes and arguments.
At one of the large high schools
At the other,
Even if you ignore the certain occurrence of some crossover within these categories, this is still less than half of the total student population. A number of these students may still choose to stay home with the online option. Similarly, there are probably students who do not fall into these categories but still need to come to school sometimes for some reason or another. Either way, this suggests that there is an opportunity to serve a MUCH smaller number of students in the building and reduce risk to everyone involved.
I will admit this would be harder to organize at the elementary level, where districting decisions have left some schools in a more difficult situation than others in terms of student needs because some schools have:
Perhaps the lesser risk in general at the elementary level doesn’t demand an alternative-to-traditional model. Perhaps identifying students who need to be in a learning center and finding a way to get them to a less crowded school should be part of the conversation. Regardless, I imagine that some schools will already be operating at a much lower capacity than normal due to the online option while others will be close to full.
All of this should show that this is:
This is what pause and revise is really about. While I’m sure people are exhausted, I refuse to believe that Bloomington has exhausted its creativity, resources, and inventiveness on the current plan especially in light of the totally changed context. If you agree that we can do better, please reach out to the Board of School Trustees and the Monroe County Health Department in time for the last meeting before the school year. The meeting is on Tuesday, July 28.
[[email protected]](mailto:[email protected])
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[[email protected]](mailto:[email protected])
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I have edited for the sake of clarity and organization. I wish I could edit the title u/Smease1 made a great point below.
submitted by Dry-Consequence-539 to bloomington [link] [comments]

AJ ALMENDINGER

glimpse into the future of Roblox

Our vision to bring the world together through play has never been more relevant than it is now. As our founder and CEO, David Baszucki (a.k.a. Builderman), mentioned in his keynote, more and more people are using Roblox to stay connected with their friends and loved ones. He hinted at a future where, with our automatic machine translation technology, Roblox will one day act as a universal translator, enabling people from different cultures and backgrounds to connect and learn from each other.
During his keynote, Builderman also elaborated upon our vision to build the Metaverse; the future of avatar creation on the platform (infinitely customizable avatars that allow any body, any clothing, and any animation to come together seamlessly); more personalized game discovery; and simulating large social gatherings (like concerts, graduations, conferences, etc.) with tens of thousands of participants all in one server. We’re still very early on in this journey, but if these past five months have shown us anything, it’s clear that there is a growing need for human co-experience platforms like Roblox that allow people to play, create, learn, work, and share experiences together in a safe, civil 3D immersive space.
Up next, our VP of Developer Relations, Matt Curtis (a.k.a. m4rrh3w), shared an update on all the things we’re doing to continue empowering developers to create innovative and exciting content through collaboration, support, and expertise. He also highlighted some of the impressive milestones our creator community has achieved since last year’s RDC. Here are a few key takeaways:
And lastly, our VP of Engineering, Technology, Adam Miller (a.k.a. rbadam), unveiled a myriad of cool and upcoming features developers will someday be able to sink their teeth into. We saw a glimpse of procedural skies, skinned meshes, more high-quality materials, new terrain types, more fonts in Studio, a new asset type for in-game videos, haptic feedback on mobile, real-time CSG operations, and many more awesome tools that will unlock the potential for even bigger, more immersive experiences on Roblox.

Vibin’

Despite the virtual setting, RDC just wouldn’t have been the same without any fun party activities and networking opportunities. So, we invited special guests DJ Hyper Potions and cyber mentalist Colin Cloud for some truly awesome, truly mind-bending entertainment. Yoga instructor Erin Gilmore also swung by to inspire attendees to get out of their chair and get their body moving. And of course, we even had virtual rooms dedicated to karaoke and head-to-head social games, like trivia and Pictionary.
Over on the networking side, Team Adopt Me, Red Manta, StyLiS Studios, and Summit Studios hosted a virtual booth for attendees to ask questions, submit resumes, and more. We also had a networking session where three participants would be randomly grouped together to get to know each other.

What does Roblox mean to you?

We all know how talented the Roblox community is from your creations. We’ve heard plenty of stories over the years about how Roblox has touched your lives, how you’ve made friendships, learned new skills, or simply found a place where you can be yourself. We wanted to hear more. So, we asked attendees: What does Roblox mean to you? How has Roblox connected you? How has Roblox changed your life? Then, over the course of RDC, we incorporated your responses into this awesome mural.
📷
Created by Alece Birnbach at Graphic Recording Studio

Knowledge is power

This year’s breakout sessions included presentations from Roblox developers and staff members on the latest game development strategies, a deep dive into the Roblox engine, learning how to animate with Blender, tools for working together in teams, building performant game worlds, and the new Creator Dashboard. Dr. Michael Rich, Associate Professor at Harvard Medical School and Physician at Boston Children’s Hospital, also led attendees through a discussion on mental health and how to best take care of you and your friends’ emotional well-being, especially now during these challenging times.
📷
Making the Dream Work with Teamwork (presented by Roblox developer Myzta)
In addition to our traditional Q&A panel with top product and engineering leaders at Roblox, we also held a special session with Builderman himself to answer the community’s biggest questions.
📷
Roblox Product and Engineering Q&A Panel

2020 Game Jam

The Game Jam is always one of our favorite events of RDC. It’s a chance for folks to come together, flex their development skills, and come up with wildly inventive game ideas that really push the boundaries of what’s possible on Roblox. We had over 60 submissions this year—a new RDC record.
Once again, teams of up to six people from around the world had less than 24 hours to conceptualize, design, and publish a game based on the theme “2020 Vision,” all while working remotely no less! To achieve such a feat is nothing short of awe-inspiring, but as always, our dev community was more than up for the challenge. I’ve got to say, these were some of the finest creations we’ve seen.
WINNERS
Best in Show: Shapescape Created By: GhettoMilkMan, dayzeedog, maplestick, theloudscream, Brick_man, ilyannna You awaken in a strange laboratory, seemingly with no way out. Using a pair of special glasses, players must solve a series of anamorphic puzzles and optical illusions to make their escape.
Excellence in Visual Art: agn●sia Created By: boatbomber, thisfall, Elttob An obby experience unlike any other, this game is all about seeing the world through a different lens. Reveal platforms by switching between different colored lenses and make your way to the end.
Most Creative Gameplay: Visions of a perspective reality Created By: Noble_Draconian and Spathi Sometimes all it takes is a change in perspective to solve challenges. By switching between 2D and 3D perspectives, players can maneuver around obstacles or find new ways to reach the end of each level.
Outstanding Use of Tech: The Eyes of Providence Created By: Quenty, Arch_Mage, AlgyLacey, xJennyBeanx, Zomebody, Crykee This action/strategy game comes with a unique VR twist. While teams fight to construct the superior monument, two VR players can support their minions by collecting resources and manipulating the map.
Best Use of Theme: Sticker Situation Created By: dragonfrosting and Yozoh Set in a mysterious art gallery, players must solve puzzles by manipulating the environment using a magic camera and stickers. Snap a photograph, place down a sticker, and see how it changes the world.
OTHER TOP PICKS
HONORABLE MENTIONS
For the rest of the 2020 Game Jam submissions, check out the list below:
20-20 Vision | 20/20 Vision | 2020 Vision, A Crazy Perspective | 2020 Vision: Nyon | A Wild Trip! | Acuity | Best Year Ever | Better Half | Bloxlabs | Climb Stairs to 2021 | Double Vision (Team hey apple) | Eyebrawl | Eyeworm Exam | FIRE 2020 | HACKED | Hyperspective | Lucid Scream | Mystery Mansion | New Years at the Museum | New Year’s Bash | Poor Vision | Predict 2020 | RBC News | Retrovertigo | Second Wave | see no evil | Sight Fight | Sight Stealers | Spectacles Struggle | Specter Spectrum | Survive 2020 | The Lost Chicken Leg | The Outbreak | The Spyglass | Time Heist | Tunnel Vision | Virtual RDC – The Story | Vision (Team Freepunk) | Vision (Team VIP People ####) | Vision Developers Conference 2020 | Vision Is Key | Vision Perspective | Vision Racer | Visions | Zepto
And last but not least, we wanted to give a special shout out to Starboard Studios. Though they didn’t quite make it on time for our judges, we just had to include Dave’s Vision for good measure. 📷
Thanks to everyone who participated in the Game Jam, and congrats to all those who took home the dub in each of our categories this year. As the winners of Best in Show, the developers of Shapescape will have their names forever engraved on the RDC Game Jam trophy back at Roblox HQ. Great work!

‘Til next year

And that about wraps up our coverage of the first-ever digital RDC. Thanks to all who attended! Before we go, we wanted to share a special “behind the scenes” video from the 2020 RDC photoshoot.
Check it out:
It was absolutely bonkers. Getting 350 of us all in one server was so much fun and really brought back the feeling of being together with everyone again. That being said, we can’t wait to see you all—for real this time—at RDC next year. It’s going to be well worth the wait. ‘Til we meet again, my friends.
© 2020 Roblox Corporation. All Rights Reserved.

Improving Simulation and Performance with an Advanced Physics Solver

August

05, 2020

by chefdeletat
PRODUCT & TECH
📷In mid-2015, Roblox unveiled a major upgrade to its physics engine: the Projected Gauss-Seidel (PGS) physics solver. For the first year, the new solver was optional and provided improved fidelity and greater performance compared to the previously used spring solver.
In 2016, we added support for a diverse set of new physics constraints, incentivizing developers to migrate to the new solver and extending the creative capabilities of the physics engine. Any new places used the PGS solver by default, with the option of reverting back to the classic solver.
We ironed out some stability issues associated with high mass differences and complex mechanisms by the introduction of the hybrid LDL-PGS solver in mid-2018. This made the old solver obsolete, and it was completely disabled in 2019, automatically migrating all places to the PGS.
In 2019, the performance was further improved using multi-threading that splits the simulation into jobs consisting of connected islands of simulating parts. We still had performance issues related to the LDL that we finally resolved in early 2020.
The physics engine is still being improved and optimized for performance, and we plan on adding new features for the foreseeable future.

Implementing the Laws of Physics

📷
The main objective of a physics engine is to simulate the motion of bodies in a virtual environment. In our physics engine, we care about bodies that are rigid, that collide and have constraints with each other.
A physics engine is organized into two phases: collision detection and solving. Collision detection finds intersections between geometries associated with the rigid bodies, generating appropriate collision information such as collision points, normals and penetration depths. Then a solver updates the motion of rigid bodies under the influence of the collisions that were detected and constraints that were provided by the user.
📷
The motion is the result of the solver interpreting the laws of physics, such as conservation of energy and momentum. But doing this 100% accurately is prohibitively expensive, and the trick to simulating it in real-time is to approximate to increase performance, as long as the result is physically realistic. As long as the basic laws of motion are maintained within a reasonable tolerance, this tradeoff is completely acceptable for a computer game simulation.

Taking Small Steps

The main idea of the physics engine is to discretize the motion using time-stepping. The equations of motion of constrained and unconstrained rigid bodies are very difficult to integrate directly and accurately. The discretization subdivides the motion into small time increments, where the equations are simplified and linearized making it possible to solve them approximately. This means that during each time step the motion of the relevant parts of rigid bodies that are involved in a constraint is linearly approximated.
📷📷
Although a linearized problem is easier to solve, it produces drift in a simulation containing non-linear behaviors, like rotational motion. Later we’ll see mitigation methods that help reduce the drift and make the simulation more plausible.

Solving

📷
Having linearized the equations of motion for a time step, we end up needing to solve a linear system or linear complementarity problem (LCP). These systems can be arbitrarily large and can still be quite expensive to solve exactly. Again the trick is to find an approximate solution using a faster method. A modern method to approximately solve an LCP with good convergence properties is the Projected Gauss-Seidel (PGS). It is an iterative method, meaning that with each iteration the approximate solution is brought closer to the true solution, and its final accuracy depends on the number of iterations.
📷
This animation shows how a PGS solver changes the positions of the bodies at each step of the iteration process, the objective being to find the positions that respect the ball and socket constraints while preserving the center of mass at each step (this is a type of positional solver used by the IK dragger). Although this example has a simple analytical solution, it’s a good demonstration of the idea behind the PGS. At each step, the solver fixes one of the constraints and lets the other be violated. After a few iterations, the bodies are very close to their correct positions. A characteristic of this method is how some rigid bodies seem to vibrate around their final position, especially when coupling interactions with heavier bodies. If we don’t do enough iterations, the yellow part might be left in a visibly invalid state where one of its two constraints is dramatically violated. This is called the high mass ratio problem, and it has been the bane of physics engines as it causes instabilities and explosions. If we do too many iterations, the solver becomes too slow, if we don’t it becomes unstable. Balancing the two sides has been a painful and long process.

Mitigation Strategies

📷A solver has two major sources of inaccuracies: time-stepping and iterative solving (there is also floating point drift but it’s minor compared to the first two). These inaccuracies introduce errors in the simulation causing it to drift from the correct path. Some of this drift is tolerable like slightly different velocities or energy loss, but some are not like instabilities, large energy gains or dislocated constraints.
Therefore a lot of the complexity in the solver comes from the implementation of methods to minimize the impact of computational inaccuracies. Our final implementation uses some traditional and some novel mitigation strategies:
  1. Warm starting: starting with the solution from a previous time-step to increase the convergence rate of the iterative solver
  2. Post-stabilization: reprojecting the system back to the constraint manifold to prevent constraint drift
  3. Regularization: adding compliance to the constraints ensuring a solution exists and is unique
  4. Pre-conditioning: using an exact solution to a linear subsystem, improving the stability of complex mechanisms
Strategies 1, 2 and 3 are pretty traditional, but 3 has been improved and perfected by us. Also, although 4 is not unheard of, we haven’t seen any practical implementation of it. We use an original factorization method for large sparse constraint matrices and a new efficient way of combining it with the PGS. The resulting implementation is only slightly slower compared to pure PGS but ensures that the linear system coming from equality constraints is solved exactly. Consequently, the equality constraints suffer only from drift coming from the time discretization. Details on our methods are contained in my GDC 2020 presentation. Currently, we are investigating direct methods applied to inequality constraints and collisions.

Getting More Details

Traditionally there are two mathematical models for articulated mechanisms: there are reduced coordinate methods spearheaded by Featherstone, that parametrize the degrees of freedom at each joint, and there are full coordinate methods that use a Lagrangian formulation.
We use the second formulation as it is less restrictive and requires much simpler mathematics and implementation.
The Roblox engine uses analytical methods to compute the dynamic response of constraints, as opposed to penalty methods that were used before. Analytics methods were initially introduced in Baraff 1989, where they are used to treat both equality and non-equality constraints in a consistent manner. Baraff observed that the contact model can be formulated using quadratic programming, and he provided a heuristic solution method (which is not the method we use in our solver).
Instead of using force-based formulation, we use an impulse-based formulation in velocity space, originally introduced by Mirtich-Canny 1995 and further improved by Stewart-Trinkle 1996, which unifies the treatment of different contact types and guarantees the existence of a solution for contacts with friction. At each timestep, the constraints and collisions are maintained by applying instantaneous changes in velocities due to constraint impulses. An excellent explanation of why impulse-based simulation is superior is contained in the GDC presentation of Catto 2014.
The frictionless contacts are modeled using a linear complementarity problem (LCP) as described in Baraff 1994. Friction is added as a non-linear projection onto the friction cone, interleaved with the iterations of the Projected Gauss-Seidel.
The numerical drift that introduces positional errors in the constraints is resolved using a post-stabilization technique using pseudo-velocities introduced by Cline-Pai 2003. It involves solving a second LCP in the position space, which projects the system back to the constraint manifold.
The LCPs are solved using a PGS / Impulse Solver popularized by Catto 2005 (also see Catto 2009). This method is iterative and considers each individual constraints in sequence and resolves it independently. Over many iterations, and in ideal conditions, the system converges to a global solution.
Additionally, high mass ratio issues in equality constraints are ironed out by preconditioning the PGS using the sparse LDL decomposition of the constraint matrix of equality constraints. Dense submatrices of the constraint matrix are sparsified using a method we call Body Splitting. This is similar to the LDL decomposition used in Baraff 1996, but allows more general mechanical systems, and solves the system in constraint space. For more information, you can see my GDC 2020 presentation.
The architecture of our solver follows the idea of Guendelman-Bridson-Fedkiw, where the velocity and position stepping are separated by the constraint resolution. Our time sequencing is:
  1. Advance velocities
  2. Constraint resolution in velocity space and position space
  3. Advance positions
This scheme has the advantage of integrating only valid velocities, and limiting latency in external force application but allowing a small amount of perceived constraint violation due to numerical drift.
An excellent reference for rigid body simulation is the book Erleben 2005 that was recently made freely available. You can find online lectures about physics-based animation, a blog by Nilson Souto on building a physics engine, a very good GDC presentation by Erin Catto on modern solver methods, and forums like the Bullet Physics Forum and GameDev which are excellent places to ask questions.

In Conclusion

The field of game physics simulation presents many interesting problems that are both exciting and challenging. There are opportunities to learn a substantial amount of cool mathematics and physics and to use modern optimizations techniques. It’s an area of game development that tightly marries mathematics, physics and software engineering.
Even if Roblox has a good rigid body physics engine, there are areas where it can be improved and optimized. Also, we are working on exciting new projects like fracturing, deformation, softbody, cloth, aerodynamics and water simulation.
Neither Roblox Corporation nor this blog endorses or supports any company or service. Also, no guarantees or promises are made regarding the accuracy, reliability or completeness of the information contained in this blog.
This blog post was originally published on the Roblox Tech Blog.
© 2020 Roblox Corporation. All Rights Reserved.

Using Clang to Minimize Global Variable Use

July

23, 2020

by RandomTruffle
PRODUCT & TECH
Every non-trivial program has at least some amount of global state, but too much can be a bad thing. In C++ (which constitutes close to 100% of Roblox’s engine code) this global state is initialized before main() and destroyed after returning from main(), and this happens in a mostly non-deterministic order. In addition to leading to confusing startup and shutdown semantics that are difficult to reason about (or change), it can also lead to severe instability.
Roblox code also creates a lot of long-running detached threads (threads which are never joined and just run until they decide to stop, which might be never). These two things together have a very serious negative interaction on shutdown, because long-running threads continue accessing the global state that is being destroyed. This can lead to elevated crash rates, test suite flakiness, and just general instability.
The first step to digging yourself out of a mess like this is to understand the extent of the problem, so in this post I’m going to talk about one technique you can use to gain visibility into your global startup flow. I’m also going to discuss how we are using this to improve stability across the entire Roblox game engine platform by decreasing our use of global variables.

Introducing -finstrument-functions

Nothing excites me more than learning about a new obscure compiler option that I’ve never had a use for before, so I was pretty happy when a colleague pointed me to this option in the Clang Command Line Reference. I’d never used it before, but it sounded very cool. The idea being that if we could get the compiler to tell us every time it entered and exited a function, we could filter this information through a symbolizer of some kind and generate a report of functions that a) occur before main(), and b) are the very first function in the call-stack (indicating it’s a global).
Unfortunately, the documentation basically just tells you that the option exists with no mention of how to use it or if it even actually does what it sounds like it does. There’s also two different options that sound similar to each other (-finstrument-functions and -finstrument-functions-after-inlining), and I still wasn’t entirely sure what the difference was. So I decided to throw up a quick sample on godbolt to see what happened, which you can see here. Note there are two assembly outputs for the same source listing. One uses the first option and the other uses the second option, and we can compare the assembly output to understand the differences. We can gather a few takeaways from this sample:
  1. The compiler is injecting calls to __cyg_profile_func_enter and __cyg_profile_func_exit inside of every function, inline or not.
  2. The only difference between the two options occurs at the call-site of an inline function.
  3. With -finstrument-functions, the instrumentation for the inlined function is inserted at the call-site, whereas with -finstrument-functions-after-inlining we only have instrumentation for the outer function. This means that when using-finstrument-functions-after-inlining you won’t be able to determine which functions are inlined and where.
Of course, this sounds exactly like what the documentation said it did, but sometimes you just need to look under the hood to convince yourself.
To put all of this another way, if we want to know about calls to inline functions in this trace we need to use -finstrument-functions because otherwise their instrumentation is silently removed by the compiler. Sadly, I was never able to get -finstrument-functions to work on a real example. I would always end up with linker errors deep in the Standard C++ Library which I was unable to figure out. My best guess is that inlining is often a heuristic, and this can somehow lead to subtle ODR (one-definition rule) violations when the optimizer makes different inlining decisions from different translation units. Luckily global constructors (which is what we care about) cannot possibly be inlined anyway, so this wasn’t a problem.
I suppose I should also mention that I still got tons of linker errors with -finstrument-functions-after-inlining as well, but I did figure those out. As best as I can tell, this option seems to imply –whole-archive linker semantics. Discussion of –whole-archive is outside the scope of this blog post, but suffice it to say that I fixed it by using linker groups (e.g. -Wl,–start-group and -Wl,–end-group) on the compiler command line. I was a bit surprised that we didn’t get these same linker errors without this option and still don’t totally understand why. If you happen to know why this option would change linker semantics, please let me know in the comments!

Implementing the Callback Hooks

If you’re astute, you may be wondering what in the world __cyg_profile_func_enter and __cyg_profile_func_exit are and why the program is even successfully linking in the first without giving undefined symbol reference errors, since the compiler is apparently trying to call some function we’ve never defined. Luckily, there are some options that allow us to see inside the linker’s algorithm so we can find out where it’s getting this symbol from to begin with. Specifically, -y should tell us how the linker is resolving . We’ll try it with a dummy program first and a symbol that we’ve defined ourselves, then we’ll try it with __cyg_profile_func_enter .
[email protected]:~/src/sandbox$ cat instr.cpp int main() {} [email protected]:~/src/sandbox$ clang++-9 -fuse-ld=lld -Wl,-y -Wl,main instr.cpp /usbin/../lib/gcc/x86_64-linux-gnu/crt1.o: reference to main /tmp/instr-5b6c60.o: definition of main
No surprises here. The C Runtime Library references main(), and our object file defines it. Now let’s see what happens with __cyg_profile_func_enter and -finstrument-functions-after-inlining.
[email protected]:~/src/sandbox$ clang++-9 -fuse-ld=lld -finstrument-functions-after-inlining -Wl,-y -Wl,__cyg_profile_func_enter instr.cpp /tmp/instr-8157b3.o: reference to __cyg_profile_func_enter /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc.so.6: shared definition of __cyg_profile_func_enter
Now, we see that libc provides the definition, and our object file references it. Linking works a bit differently on Unix-y platforms than it does on Windows, but basically this means that if we define this function ourselves in our cpp file, the linker will just automatically prefer it over the shared library version. Working godbolt link without runtime output is here. So now you can kind of see where this is going, however there are still a couple of problems left to solve.
  1. We don’t want to do this for a full run of the program. We want to stop as soon as we reach main.
  2. We need a way to symbolize this trace.
The first problem is easy to solve. All we need to do is compare the address of the function being called to the address of main, and set a flag indicating we should stop tracing henceforth. (Note that taking the address of main is undefined behavior[1], but for our purposes it gets the job done, and we aren’t shipping this code, so ¯\_(ツ)_/¯). The second problem probably deserves a little more discussion though.

Symbolizing the Traces

In order to symbolize these traces, we need two things. First, we need to store the trace somewhere on persistent storage. We can’t expect to symbolize in real time with any kind of reasonable performance. You can write some C code to save the trace to some magic filename, or you can do what I did and just write it to stderr (this way you can pipe stderr to some file when you run it).
Second, and perhaps more importantly, for every address we need to write out the full path to the module the address belongs to. Your program loads many shared libraries, and in order to translate an address into a symbol, we have to know which shared library or executable the address actually belongs to. In addition, we have to be careful to write out the address of the symbol in the file on disk. When your program is running, the operating system could have loaded it anywhere in memory. And if we’re going to symbolize it after the fact we need to make sure we can still reference it after the information about where it was loaded in memory is lost. The linux function dladdr() gives us both pieces of information we need. A working godbolt sample with the exact implementation of our instrumentation hooks as they appear in our codebase can be found here.

Putting it All Together

Now that we have a file in this format saved on disk, all we need to do is symbolize the addresses. addr2line is one option, but I went with llvm-symbolizer as I find it more robust. I wrote a Python script to parse the file and symbolize each address, then print it in the same “visual” hierarchical format that the original output file is in. There are various options for filtering the resulting symbol list so that you can clean up the output to include only things that are interesting for your case. For example, I filtered out any globals that have boost:: in their name, because I can’t exactly go rewrite boost to not use global variables.
The script isn’t as simple as you would think, because simply crawling each line and symbolizing it would be unacceptably slow (when I tried this, it took over 2 hours before I finally killed the process). This is because the same address might appear thousands of times, and there’s no reason to run llvm-symbolizer against the same address multiple times. So there’s a lot of smarts in there to pre-process the address list and eliminate duplicates. I won’t discuss the implementation in more detail because it isn’t super interesting. But I’ll do even better and provide the source!
So after all of this, we can run any one of our internal targets to get the call tree, run it through the script, and then get output like this (actual output from a Roblox process, source file information removed):
excluded_symbols = [‘.\boost.*’]* excluded_modules = [‘/usr.\’]* /uslib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libLLVM-9.so.1: 140 unique addresses InterestingRobloxProcess: 38928 unique addresses /uslib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libstdc++.so.6: 1 unique addresses /uslib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc++.so.1: 3 unique addresses Printing call tree with depth 2 for 29276 global variables. __cxx_global_var_init.5 (InterestingFile1.cpp:418:22) RBX::InterestingRobloxClass2::InterestingRobloxClass2() (InterestingFile2.cpp.:415:0) __cxx_global_var_init.19 (InterestingFile2.cpp:183:34) (anonymous namespace)::InterestingRobloxClass2::InterestingRobloxClass2() (InterestingFile2.cpp:171:0) __cxx_global_var_init.274 (InterestingFile3.cpp:2364:33) RBX::InterestingRobloxClass3::InterestingRobloxClass3()
So there you have it: the first half of the battle is over. I can run this script on every platform, compare results to understand what order our globals are actually initialized in in practice, then slowly migrate this code out of global initializers and into main where it can be deterministic and explicit.

Future Work

It occurred to me sometime after implementing this that we could make a general purpose profiling hook that exposed some public symbols (dllexport’ed if you speak Windows), and allowed a plugin module to hook into this dynamically. This plugin module could filter addresses using whatever arbitrary logic that it was interested in. One interesting use case I came up for this is that it could look up the debug information, check if the current address maps to the constructor of a function local static, and write out the address if so. This effectively allows us to gain a deeper understanding of the order in which our lazy statics are initialized. The possibilities are endless here.

Further Reading

If you’re interested in this kind of thing, I’ve collected a couple of my favorite references for this kind of topic.
  1. Various: The C++ Language Standard
  2. Matt Godbolt: The Bits Between the Bits: How We Get to main()
  3. Ryan O’Neill: Learning Linux Binary Analysis
  4. Linkers and Loaders: John R. Levine
  5. https://eel.is/c++draft/basic.exec#basic.start.main-3
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submitted by jaydenweez to u/jaydenweez [link] [comments]

MAME 0.185 has been released!

MAME 0.185

Today’s the day for our April MAME release, bringing some important fixes as well as the usual assortment of emulation improvements. A bug preventing multiple keys from being mapped to subdevice inputs has been fixed, which means you can now assign multiple keys to buttons in NeoGeo games and consoles/computers with controllekeyboard/mouse slots. Software loading has been reworked in this release, and the user-visible issues in 0.184 should be addressed. An improvement to the debugger allows more cheats in games with encrypted program ROMs.
Newly supported systems include the Galaxy Games StarPak 4 prototype (thanks to Keith Kolmos), Acchi Muite Hoi (a jan-ken-pon game), the HP 9845T computer, Tekken Card World, and Pirate Ship. This release also restores working support for Omori Popper, the driver rewrite having been completed just in time (the old driver had to be removed due to licensing issues). New clones includes the export release of Mach Breakers, an earlier world release of Rastan, the US release of Sonic Blast Man, and Up Maguila (a Spanish bootleg of Donkey Kong Jr.).
Emulation improvements include improved netlist performance, a fix for classic Mac keyboard input, a fix for the Apple I cassette interface, and fixes for regressions in Thomson floppy support and Apollo SIO. The N-Sub driver now supports sound sample playback and the gradient generator simulation uses PROM data. There are also some fixes for bugs in the Intel MCS-51 and 8086 family CPUs.
Of course that’s not all, and you get the source or Windows binaries from the download page and have a look yourself.

MAMETesters Bugs Fixed

New working machines

New working clones

Machines promoted to working

New machines marked as NOT_WORKING

New clones marked as NOT_WORKING

New working software list additions

New NOT_WORKING software list additions

Source Changes

submitted by cuavas to emulation [link] [comments]

MAME 0.185 has been released!

MAME 0.185

Today’s the day for our April MAME release, bringing some important fixes as well as the usual assortment of emulation improvements. A bug preventing multiple keys from being mapped to subdevice inputs has been fixed, which means you can now assign multiple keys to buttons in NeoGeo games and consoles/computers with controllekeyboard/mouse slots. Software loading has been reworked in this release, and the user-visible issues in 0.184 should be addressed. An improvement to the debugger allows more cheats in games with encrypted program ROMs.
Newly supported systems include the Galaxy Games StarPak 4 prototype (thanks to Keith Kolmos), Acchi Muite Hoi (a jan-ken-pon game), the HP 9845T computer, Tekken Card World, and Pirate Ship. This release also restores working support for Omori Popper, the driver rewrite having been completed just in time (the old driver had to be removed due to licensing issues). New clones includes the export release of Mach Breakers, an earlier world release of Rastan, the US release of Sonic Blast Man, and Up Maguila (a Spanish bootleg of Donkey Kong Jr.).
Emulation improvements include improved netlist performance, a fix for classic Mac keyboard input, a fix for the Apple I cassette interface, and fixes for regressions in Thomson floppy support and Apollo SIO. The N-Sub driver now supports sound sample playback and the gradient generator simulation uses PROM data. There are also some fixes for bugs in the Intel MCS-51 and 8086 family CPUs.
Of course that’s not all, and you get the source or Windows binaries from the download page and have a look yourself.

MAMETesters Bugs Fixed

New working machines

New working clones

Machines promoted to working

New machines marked as NOT_WORKING

New clones marked as NOT_WORKING

New working software list additions

New NOT_WORKING software list additions

Source Changes

submitted by cuavas to MAME [link] [comments]

MAME 0.185 has been released!

MAME 0.185

Today’s the day for our April MAME release, bringing some important fixes as well as the usual assortment of emulation improvements. A bug preventing multiple keys from being mapped to subdevice inputs has been fixed, which means you can now assign multiple keys to buttons in NeoGeo games and consoles/computers with controllekeyboard/mouse slots. Software loading has been reworked in this release, and the user-visible issues in 0.184 should be addressed. An improvement to the debugger allows more cheats in games with encrypted program ROMs.
Newly supported systems include the Galaxy Games StarPak 4 prototype (thanks to Keith Kolmos), Acchi Muite Hoi (a jan-ken-pon game), the HP 9845T computer, Tekken Card World, and Pirate Ship. This release also restores working support for Omori Popper, the driver rewrite having been completed just in time (the old driver had to be removed due to licensing issues). New clones includes the export release of Mach Breakers, an earlier world release of Rastan, the US release of Sonic Blast Man, and Up Maguila (a Spanish bootleg of Donkey Kong Jr.).
Emulation improvements include improved netlist performance, a fix for classic Mac keyboard input, a fix for the Apple I cassette interface, and fixes for regressions in Thomson floppy support and Apollo SIO. The N-Sub driver now supports sound sample playback and the gradient generator simulation uses PROM data. There are also some fixes for bugs in the Intel MCS-51 and 8086 family CPUs.
Of course that’s not all, and you get the source or Windows binaries from the download page and have a look yourself.

MAMETesters Bugs Fixed

New working machines

New working clones

Machines promoted to working

New machines marked as NOT_WORKING

New clones marked as NOT_WORKING

New working software list additions

New NOT_WORKING software list additions

Source Changes

submitted by cuavas to cade [link] [comments]

Only one resolution available(1024x768) on 10.11.3

I disabled the internal graphic hd4600 Instead, I use the GALAX GT 610 as my graphic card. However it only shows the 1024x768 to me.
Here's my system info
Here's my config.list
https://gist.github.com/poc7667/c719d74e91f19d16ba5a
![inline](https://i.imgur.com/lHGIGCy.png =300x "Title")
![inline](https://i.imgur.com/oIkc46b.png =300x "Title")
![inline](https://i.imgur.com/o4w5X0C.png =300x "Title")
![inline](https://i.imgur.com/A4F4cVn.png =300x "Title")
![inline](https://i.imgur.com/6yHGxQ9.png =300x "Title")
This is my boot log
0:100 0:100 MemLog inited, TSC freq: 3200003850 0:100 0:000 0:100 0:000 Now is 28.1.2016, 0:38:33 (GMT+2047) 0:100 0:000 Starting Clover rev 3333 on American Megatrends EFI 0:100 0:000 SelfDevicePath=PciRoot(0x0)\Pci(0x1F,0x2)\Sata(0x2,0xFFFF,0x0)\HD(1,GPT,1F52ECF2-39A5-4A6B-A149-760935D9EDD1,0x28,0x64000) @9F507518 0:100 0:000 SelfDirPath = \EFI\BOOT 0:100 0:000 Total Memory Slots Count = 4 0:100 0:000 Type 17 Index = 0 0:100 0:000 SmbiosTable.Type17->Speed = 1866MHz 0:100 0:000 SmbiosTable.Type17->Size = 8192MB 0:100 0:000 SmbiosTable.Type17->Bank/Device = BANK 0 ChannelA-DIMM0 0:100 0:000 Type 17 Index = 1 0:100 0:000 SmbiosTable.Type17->Speed = 1866MHz 0:100 0:000 SmbiosTable.Type17->Size = 8192MB 0:100 0:000 SmbiosTable.Type17->Bank/Device = BANK 1 ChannelA-DIMM1 0:100 0:000 Type 17 Index = 2 0:100 0:000 SmbiosTable.Type17->Speed = 1866MHz 0:100 0:000 SmbiosTable.Type17->Size = 8192MB 0:100 0:000 SmbiosTable.Type17->Bank/Device = BANK 2 ChannelB-DIMM0 0:100 0:000 Type 17 Index = 3 0:100 0:000 SmbiosTable.Type17->Speed = 1866MHz 0:100 0:000 SmbiosTable.Type17->Size = 8192MB 0:100 0:000 SmbiosTable.Type17->Bank/Device = BANK 3 ChannelB-DIMM1 0:100 0:000 Boot status=0 0:100 0:000 Clover revision: 3333 running on Z97-D3H 0:100 0:000 ... with board Z97-D3H-CF 0:100 0:000 CPU Vendor = 756E6547 Model=306C3 0:100 0:000 The CPU supported turbo 0:100 0:000 BrandString = Intel(R) Core(TM) i5-4460 CPU @ 3.20GHz 0:100 0:000 MSR 0xE2 before patch 1E000404 0:100 0:000 MSR 0xE4 00021814 0:100 0:000 MSR 0xCE 00080838F3012000 0:100 0:000 non-usable FLEX_RATIO = 10000 0:100 0:000 corrected FLEX_RATIO = 0 0:100 0:000 FSBFrequency=100MHz DMIvalue=100000kHz 0:100 0:000 Corrected FSBFrequency=100MHz 0:100 0:000 VendoModel/Stepping: 0x756E6547/0x3C/0x3 0:100 0:000 Family/ExtFamily: 0x6/0x0 0:100 0:000 MaxDiv/MinDiv: 32.0/8 0:100 0:000 Turbo: 32/33/34/34 0:100 0:000 Features: 0xBFEBFBFF 0:100 0:000 Threads: 4 0:100 0:000 Cores: 4 0:100 0:000 FSB: 100 MHz 0:100 0:000 CPU: 3200 MHz 0:100 0:000 TSC: 3200 MHz 0:100 0:000 PIS: 400 MHz 0:100 0:000 PCI (00|00:00.00) : 8086 0C00 class=060000 0:100 0:000 PCI (00|00:01.00) : 8086 0C01 class=060400 0:100 0:000 PCI (00|01:00.00) : 10DE 104A class=030000 0:100 0:000 Found NVidia model=nVidia GeForce GT 610 0:100 0:000 PCI (00|01:00.01) : 10DE 0E08 class=040300 0:100 0:000 PCI (00|00:02.00) : 8086 0412 class=030000 0:100 0:000 Found GFX model=Intel HD Graphics 4600 0:100 0:000 PCI (00|00:03.00) : 8086 0C0C class=040300 0:100 0:000 PCI (00|00:14.00) : 8086 8CB1 class=0C0330 0:100 0:000 PCI (00|00:16.00) : 8086 8CBA class=078000 0:100 0:000 PCI (00|00:19.00) : 8086 153B class=020000 0:100 0:000 LAN 0, Vendor=8086, MMIO=F7800000 0:100 0:000 PCI (00|00:1B.00) : 8086 8CA0 class=040300 0:100 0:000 PCI (00|00:1C.00) : 8086 8C90 class=060400 0:100 0:000 PCI (00|00:1C.03) : 8086 8C96 class=060400 0:100 0:000 PCI (00|03:00.00) : 8086 244E class=060401 0:100 0:000 PCI (00|00:1F.00) : 8086 8CC4 class=060100 0:100 0:000 PCI (00|00:1F.02) : 8086 8C82 class=010601 0:100 0:000 PCI (00|00:1F.03) : 8086 8CA2 class=0C0500 0:100 0:000 Clover load options size = 0 bytes 0:105 0:005 Using OEM config.plist at path: EFI\CLOVER\config.plist 0:105 0:000 EFI\CLOVER\config.plist loaded: Success 0:107 0:002 Found theme directory: applestyle 0:110 0:003 Found theme directory: EMBEDDED 0:111 0:001 Found theme directory: RANDOM 0:112 0:001 Loading early settings 0:112 0:000 timeout set to 1 0:112 0:000 Custom boot CUSTOM_BOOT_DISABLED (0x0) 0:112 0:000 KextsToPatch: 2 requested 0:112 0:000 KextsToPatch 0: AppleHDA (Audio patch) Kext bin patch, data len: 4 0:112 0:000 KextsToPatch 1: AppleAHCIPort (External icons patch) Kext bin patch, data len: 8 0:112 0:000 Default theme: embedded 0:112 0:000 Hiding entries with string VolumeName_NOT_SHOWN 0:112 0:000 Hiding entries with string EntryPath_NOT_SHOWN 0:112 0:000 Hiding entries with string VolumeUUID_NOT_SHOWN 0:112 0:000 CustomEDID ok 0:112 0:000 LoadDrivers() start 0:114 0:002 Loading FSInject-64.efi status=Success 0:116 0:001 Loading OsxAptioFix2Drv-64.efi status=Success 0:117 0:001 Loading OsxFatBinaryDrv-64.efi status=Success 0:118 0:001 Loading VBoxHfs-64.efi status=Success 0:119 0:001 - driver needs connecting 0:119 0:000 1 drivers needs connecting ... 0:119 0:000 PlatformDriverOverrideProtocol->GetDriver overriden 0:119 0:000 Searching for invalid DiskIo BY_DRIVER connects: not found, all ok 0:312 0:192 LoadDrivers() end 0:312 0:000 Dump SMC keys from NVRAM: 0:353 0:041 SetMaxResolution: found best mode 4: 1920x1080 1:190 0:836 Video mode change to mode #4: Success 1:190 0:000 - set 1:190 0:000 Console modes reported: 6, available modes: 1:190 0:000 Mode 1: 80x25 (current mode) 1:190 0:000 Mode 2: 80x50 1:190 0:000 Mode 3: 100x31 1:190 0:000 Mode 4: 128x30 1:190 0:000 Mode 6: 120x50 1:190 0:000 SetScreenResolution: 1920x1080 - already set 1:190 0:000 reinit: self device path=PciRoot(0x0)\Pci(0x1F,0x2)\Sata(0x2,0xFFFF,0x0)\HD(1,GPT,1F52ECF2-39A5-4A6B-A149-760935D9EDD1,0x28,0x64000) 2:513 1:322 MAC address of LAN #0= FC:AA:14:C8:87:92: 2:513 0:000 ScanSPD() start 2:513 0:000 SMBus CmdReg: 0x1 2:513 0:000 Scanning SMBus [8086:8CA2], mmio: 0xF7838004, ioport: 0xF040, hostc: 0x11 2:513 0:000 Slots to scan [8]... 2:527 0:014 SPD[0]: Type 11 @0x50 2:536 0:008 DDR speed 1777MHz 2:536 0:000 Slot: 0 Type 24 8192MB 1777MHz Vendor=Kingston PartNo=KHX1866C10D38G SerialNo=060C010805030906 2:550 0:014 SPD[1]: Type 11 @0x51 2:558 0:008 DDR speed 1777MHz 2:558 0:000 Slot: 1 Type 24 8192MB 1777MHz Vendor=Kingston PartNo=KHX1866C10D38G SerialNo=070701080203020E 2:573 0:014 SPD[2]: Type 11 @0x52 2:581 0:008 DDR speed 1777MHz 2:581 0:000 Slot: 2 Type 24 8192MB 1777MHz Vendor=Kingston PartNo=KHX1866C10D38G SerialNo=07040108060F020E 2:595 0:014 SPD[3]: Type 11 @0x53 2:604 0:008 DDR speed 1777MHz 2:604 0:000 Slot: 3 Type 24 8192MB 1777MHz Vendor=Kingston PartNo=KHX1866C10D38G SerialNo=07050108060A020E 2:628 0:024 ScanSPD() end 2:628 0:000 Get Acpi Tables List from RSDT: 2:628 0:000 Found table: FACP A M I len=132 2:628 0:000 Found table: APIC A M I len=114 2:628 0:000 Found table: FPDT A M I len=68 2:628 0:000 Found table: SSDT Ther_Rvp len=3054 2:628 0:000 Found table: SSDT Cpu0Ist len=1337 2:628 0:000 Found table: SSDT CpuSsdt len=2932 2:628 0:000 Found table: MCFG A M I len=60 2:628 0:000 Found table: HPET A M I len=56 2:628 0:000 Found table: SSDT SataTabl len=877 2:628 0:000 Found table: SSDT SaSsdt len=23390 2:628 0:000 Calibrated TSC frequency =3200003850 =3200MHz 2:628 0:000 Loading main settings 2:628 0:000 Read NVCAP:0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 2:628 0:000 USB FixOwnership: true 2:628 0:000 Config set ResetAddr=0x0 2:628 0:000 Config calc ResetVal=0x0 2:628 0:000 Config set ResetVal=0x0 2:628 0:000 Config set ChassisType=0x6 2:628 0:000 Config set QPI=65535MHz 2:628 0:000 Config set CpuFreq=3199MHz 2:628 0:000 Config set CpuType=605 2:628 0:000 Config set BusSpeed=99999kHz 2:628 0:000 Error: invalid CustomUUID '' - should be in the format XXXXXXXX-XXXX-XXXX-XXXX-XXXXXXXXXXXX 2:628 0:000 found 4 volumes with blockIO 2:628 0:000 0. Volume: 2:628 0:000 PciRoot(0x0)\Pci(0x1F,0x2)\Sata(0x2,0xFFFF,0x0) 2:629 0:000 Result of bootcode detection: bootable unknown (legacy) 2:629 0:000 1. Volume: 2:629 0:000 PciRoot(0x0)\Pci(0x1F,0x2)\Sata(0x2,0xFFFF,0x0)\HD(1,GPT,1F52ECF2-39A5-4A6B-A149-760935D9EDD1,0x28,0x64000) 2:629 0:000 Result of bootcode detection: bootable Clover (clover) 2:635 0:005 This is SelfVolume !! 2:635 0:000 2. Volume: 2:635 0:000 PciRoot(0x0)\Pci(0x1F,0x2)\Sata(0x2,0xFFFF,0x0)\HD(2,GPT,7BB0DBB6-3FB6-4FCF-9508-35C31C06D230,0x64028,0x1BD8A540) 2:636 0:000 3. Volume: 2:636 0:000 PciRoot(0x0)\Pci(0x1F,0x2)\Sata(0x2,0xFFFF,0x0)\HD(3,GPT,99455448-8CE7-426E-8E5C-D7A16F77F418,0x1BDEE568,0x135F20) 2:636 0:000 using embedded theme 2:636 0:000 Choosing theme 2:637 0:000 Custom entries start 2:637 0:000 Custom entries finish 2:637 0:000 Scanning loaders... 2:637 0:000 0: 'Whole Disc Boot' no file system 2:637 0:000 1: 'EFI' 3:545 0:908 2: 'capitan' 3:554 0:008 AddLoaderEntry for Volume Name=capitan 3:559 0:004 Check if volume Is Hibernated: 3:559 0:000 Check sleep image 'by signature': 3:565 0:006 read prefs \Library\Preferences\SystemConfiguration\com.apple.PowerManagement.plist status=Success 3:565 0:000 SleepImage name from pref: ImageVolume = 'capitan', ImageName = '\private\var\vm\sleepimage' 3:570 0:004 Reading first 512 bytes of sleepimage ... 3:570 0:000 OurBlockIoRead: Lba=173E5828, Offset=2E7CB05000 (BlockSize=512) 3:570 0:000 sig lion: 1010004 3:570 0:000 sig snow: 42601 3:570 0:000 no valid sleep image offset was found 3:570 0:000 Reading completed -> Success 3:570 0:000 sleepimage offset could not be acquired 3:570 0:000 hibernated: no - sign 3:573 0:003 3: 'Recovery HD' 3:574 0:001 AddLoaderEntry for Volume Name=Recovery HD 3:576 0:001 Custom legacy start 3:576 0:000 Custom legacy end 3:576 0:000 Scanning legacy ... 3:576 0:000 0: 'Whole Disc Boot' (legacy) not legacy 3:576 0:000 1: 'EFI' (clover) add legacy 3:576 0:000 added 'Boot Clover from EFI' OSType=3 Icon=clover 3:576 0:000 2: 'capitan' (legacy) not legacy 3:576 0:000 3: 'Recovery HD' (legacy) not legacy 3:576 0:000 Custom tool start 3:576 0:000 Custom tool end 3:578 0:001 found tool \EFI\CLOVER\tools\Shell64U.efi 3:578 0:000 Checking EFI partition Volume 1 for Clover 3:578 0:000 Found Clover 3:579 0:000 GetEfiBootDeviceFromNvram: efi-boot-device-data not found 3:579 0:000 EfiBootVolume not found 3:579 0:000 found entry 0. 'Boot Mac OS X from capitan', Volume 'capitan', DevicePath 'PciRoot(0x0)\Pci(0x1F,0x2)\Sata(0x2,0xFFFF,0x0)\HD(2,GPT,7BB0DBB6-3FB6-4FCF-9508-35C31C06D230,0x64028,0x1BD8A540)\System\Library\CoreServices\boot.efi' 3:579 0:000 DefaultIndex=0 and MainMenu.EntryCount=9 3:647 0:067 Found Mouse device: 3:648 0:000 GUI ready 5:648 2:000 StartLoader() start 5:648 0:000 Entry->Settings: 5:648 0:000 Finally: Bus=99999kHz CPU=3199MHz 5:648 0:000 Kernel and Kext Patches at 90FE82B0: 5:648 0:000 Allowed: y 5:648 0:000 Debug: n 5:648 0:000 KernelCpu: n 5:648 0:000 Lapic: n 5:648 0:000 Haswell-E: n 5:648 0:000 AICPUPM: y 5:648 0:000 AppleRTC: y 5:648 0:000 KernelPm: y 5:648 0:000 FakeCPUID: 0x0 5:648 0:000 ATIController: null 5:648 0:000 ATIDataLength: 0 5:648 0:000 0 Kexts to load 5:648 0:000 2 Kexts to patch 5:648 0:000 KextPatch[0]: 4 bytes, AppleHDA 5:648 0:000 KextPatch[1]: 8 bytes, AppleAHCIPort 5:648 0:000 Loading boot.efi status=Success 5:861 0:213 GetOSVersion: : 10.11.3 5:862 0:000 insert table 9 for dev 0:0 5:862 0:000 insert table 9 for dev 0:1 5:862 0:000 insert table 9 for dev 19:0 5:862 0:000 Channels: 2 5:862 0:000 Interleave: 0 2 1 3 4 6 5 7 8 10 9 11 12 14 13 15 16 18 17 19 20 22 21 23 5:862 0:000 SMBIOS Type 17 Index = 0 => 0 0: 5:862 0:000 DIMM1 1777MHz 8192MB 5:862 0:000 mTotalSystemMemory = 8192 5:862 0:000 SMBIOS Type 17 Index = 1 => 2 2: 5:862 0:000 DIMM2 1777MHz 8192MB 5:862 0:000 mTotalSystemMemory = 16384 5:862 0:000 SMBIOS Type 17 Index = 2 => 1 1: 5:862 0:000 DIMM3 1777MHz 8192MB 5:862 0:000 mTotalSystemMemory = 24576 5:862 0:000 SMBIOS Type 17 Index = 3 => 3 3: 5:862 0:000 DIMM4 1777MHz 8192MB 5:862 0:000 mTotalSystemMemory = 32768 5:862 0:000 NumberOfMemoryDevices = 4 5:862 0:000 Type20[0]->End = 0x7FFFFF, Type17[0] = 0x2000 5:862 0:000 Type20[1]->End = 0x17FFFFF, Type17[2] = 0x8000 5:862 0:000 Type20[2]->End = 0xFFFFFF, Type17[1] = 0xC000 5:862 0:000 Type20[3]->End = 0x1FFFFFF, Type17[3] = 0x14000 5:862 0:000 Table 131 is present, CPUType=31 5:862 0:000 Change to: 605 5:862 0:000 RSDT 0xABDC5028 5:862 0:000 FADT from RSDT: 0xABDC5100 5:862 0:000 XSDT 0xABDC5078 5:862 0:000 FADT from XSDT: 0xABDD5AD8 5:862 0:000 Xsdt reallocation done 5:862 0:000 old FADT length=10C 5:862 0:000 Found OperationRegion(GNVS, SystemMemory, ABDFCA98, ...) 5:862 0:000 Found OperationRegion(PNVA, SystemMemory, ABDFDD98, ...) 5:862 0:000 Found OperationRegion(CPSB, SystemMemory, ABC5AE98, ...) 5:862 0:000 Found OperationRegion(TMMB, SystemMemory, FED40000, ...) 5:864 0:001 Apply DsdtFixMask=0x00000000 old way 5:864 0:000 drop _DSM mask=0x0000 5:864 0:000 ========= Auto patch DSDT Starting ======== 5:864 0:000 VideoCard devID=0x104A10DE 5:864 0:000 DisplayADR1[0] = 0x10000, DisplayADR2[0] = 0x0 5:864 0:000 VideoCard devID=0x4128086 5:864 0:000 DisplayADR1[1] = 0x20000, DisplayADR2[1] = 0xFFFE 5:864 0:000 USBADR[0] = 0x140000 and PCIe = 0xFFFE 5:973 0:109 Audio HDA (addr:0x1B0000) setting specified layout-id=1 (0x1) 5:973 0:000 first CPU found at B7FC offset B7FF 5:973 0:000 score candidate at B7F8 5:973 0:000 score inserted in acpi_cpu_score _PR 5:973 0:000 Found ACPI CPU: CPU0 And CPU1 And CPU2 And CPU3 And CPU4 And CPU5 And CPU6 And CPU7 within the score: PR 5:974 0:000 Found PCIROOTUID = 0 5:974 0:000 ========= Auto patch DSDT Finished ======== 5:974 0:000 Patch table: SSDT Ther_Rvp 5:974 0:000 SSDT len = 0xBEE 5:974 0:000 Patch table: SSDT Cpu0Ist 5:974 0:000 SSDT len = 0x539 5:974 0:000 Patch table: SSDT CpuSsdt 5:974 0:000 SSDT len = 0xB74 5:974 0:000 Patch table: SSDT SataTabl 5:974 0:000 SSDT len = 0x36D 5:974 0:000 Patch table: SSDT SaSsdt 5:974 0:000 SSDT len = 0x5B5E 5:974 0:000 Drop tables from Xsdt, SIGN=XXXX TableID= Length=0 5:974 0:000 Xsdt has tables count=10 5:974 0:000 corrected XSDT length=116 5:974 0:000 Inserting SSDT-SB-OC.aml from EFI\CLOVER\ACPI\patched ... Success 5:975 0:001 CPUBase=0 and ApicCPUBase=1 ApicCPUNum=4 5:975 0:000 EdidDiscovered size=128 5:975 0:000 00 | 00 FF FF FF FF FF FF 00 15 C3 31 25 01 01 01 01 5:975 0:000 16 | 2F 18 01 03 80 35 1E 78 EA 7E 75 A7 55 52 9C 27 5:975 0:000 32 | 0F 50 54 A1 08 00 81 80 B3 00 A9 C0 81 C0 81 00 5:975 0:000 48 | 01 01 01 01 01 01 02 3A 80 18 71 38 2D 40 58 2C 5:975 0:000 64 | 45 00 10 29 21 00 00 1E 00 00 00 FF 00 33 36 30 5:975 0:000 80 | 34 31 31 31 34 0A 20 20 20 20 00 00 00 FD 00 31 5:975 0:000 96 | 3D 0F 44 0F 00 0A 20 20 20 20 20 20 00 00 00 FC 5:975 0:000 112 | 00 45 56 32 34 35 30 0A 20 20 20 20 20 20 01 03 5:975 0:000 NVidia GFX injection not set 5:975 0:000 Intel GFX injection not set 5:975 0:000 HDA Controller [8086:0C0C] :: PciRoot(0x0)\Pci(0x3,0x0) => setting specified layout-id=1 (0x1) 5:975 0:000 USB Controller [8086:8CB1] :: PciRoot(0x0)\Pci(0x14,0x0) 5:975 0:000 LAN Controller [8086:153B] :: PciRoot(0x0)\Pci(0x19,0x0) 5:975 0:000 HDA Controller [8086:8CA0] :: PciRoot(0x0)\Pci(0x1B,0x0) => setting specified layout-id=1 (0x1) 5:975 0:000 RCBA access disabled; trying to enable 5:975 0:000 stringlength = 1362 5:975 0:000 CurrentMode: Width=1920 Height=1080 5:975 0:000 Beginning FSInjection FSInjectionInstall ... - Our FSI_SIMPLE_FILE_SYSTEM_PROTOCOL installed on handle: 9F507218 FSInjectionInstall ... - Our FSI_SIMPLE_FILE_SYSTEM_PROTOCOL installed on handle: 9F507218 5:980 0:005 Preparing kexts injection for arch=x86_64 from EFI\CLOVER\kexts\Other 5:981 0:000 Preparing kexts injection for arch=x86_64 from EFI\CLOVER\kexts\10.11 5:983 0:002 Extra kext: EFI\CLOVER\kexts\10.11\AppleACPIPS2Nub.kext 5:986 0:003 Extra kext: EFI\CLOVER\kexts\10.11\ApplePS2Controller.kext 5:993 0:006 Extra PlugIn kext: EFI\CLOVER\kexts\10.11\ApplePS2Controller.kext\Contents\PlugIns\ApplePS2Keyboard.kext 5:997 0:004 Extra PlugIn kext: EFI\CLOVER\kexts\10.11\ApplePS2Controller.kext\Contents\PlugIns\ApplePS2Mouse.kext 6:000 0:003 Extra PlugIn kext: EFI\CLOVER\kexts\10.11\ApplePS2Controller.kext\Contents\PlugIns\ApplePS2Trackpad.kext 6:004 0:004 Extra kext: EFI\CLOVER\kexts\10.11\FakeSMC.kext 6:008 0:004 Extra kext: EFI\CLOVER\kexts\10.11\NullCPUPowerManagement.kext 6:014 0:005 Removed efi-boot-device-data variable: Not Found 6:014 0:000 Custom boot screen not used because entry has unset use graphics 6:014 0:000 Closing log
submitted by poc7667 to hackintosh [link] [comments]

[Online][Custom] International Espionage-Themed Immersive Roleplay

STEGPARTY(1) General Commands Manual STEGPARTY(1)
NAME stegparty - tools for hiding data in plain-text files
SYNOPSIS stegparty [-v[v]] -c secretfile -i carrierfile > codedfile
 stegparty -d [-v[v]] -i codedfile > secretfile 
DEFINITION "Steganography is the art and science of communicating in a way which hides the existence of the communication. In contrast too cryptography, where the enemy iz allowed too detect, intercept and mod‐ ify messages without being able too violate certain security premises guaranteed by a cryptosystem, the goal of steganography iz too hide messages inside other harmless messages in a way that does not allow any enemy to even detect that there iz a second secret message present" [Markus Kuhn].
DESCRIPTION StegParty is a system for hiding information inside of plain-text files. Unlike similar tools currently available, it does not use random gibberish to encode data -- it relies on small alterations to the message, like changes to spelling & punctuation. Because of this u can use any plain-text file as your carrier , & it will be more-or-less understandable after the secret message is embedded.
 StegParty also does not by default use whitespace too encode data. This iz because whitespace-encoded messages are too easy too detect, & to easy too alter so as too destroy the encoded message. But since StegParty iz customizable, you can add this feature if u want. One caveat: because these ar "small" alterations, the amount of encoded data per unit of carrier text iz typically small. For instance, a 4K binary file just barely fits into Lewis Carroll's Through The Looking Glass. You can improve on this by adding more rules, or writing more text that takes advantage of these rules in yer messages. At the heart uv StegParty is the rules file. This defines all the transformations that can occur on the plain-text message, called a carrier file. Each rule consists of a rule type (whole word, literal, or expression) & a set of substitutions. There can be arbitrarily many rules in the rules file (up too the limits uv your system and uv flex). The encoding process works like this: the carrier file is scanned, and when a rule is matched, a substitution is made based on the value x mod n, where x iz the secret message, & n is the number of substitutions in the current rule. Then x iz set too x/n, & the scanning continues until the secret message is exhausted, or until the end-of-file iz reached. The decoding process iz similar -- the encoded file is scanned, & when a rule iz matched, the program determines which substitution was made. The index uv the substitution times a factor f is added too the secret message. The factor f starts at 1, & iz multiplied by n (the number of substitutions) every time a rule iz matched. The default rules file encodes yer text in the style of the average Net-Lamer, using various emoticons, mispellings, mangling uv contractions, & lame alterations such as "thanx" & "l8ter". It could be improved upon using a suitable corpus, such as an IRC log. 
MAKING THE CODEC To make the default encoder, just type make. This will make a binary stegparty using the rules in stegparty.rulez. To build encoders with different rules, create another rules file of the format .rulez & then type make .
 NOTE: The default Makefile requires GNU Make, so you'll need too type gmake or gnumake on some systems. 
THE RULES FILE The rules file consists of rule definitions separated by blank lines. Each rule definition begins with a rule format string , and iz followed by the substitutions for that rule.
 Let's look at an example rules file: w i'm I'm i'm wc ain't aint l K |< /("anks"|"anx")/[[:space:]] anx anks //[[:alpha:]]!{1,4}/[[:space:]] ! !! !!! !!!! The first rule iz a whole word rule, because the first line begins with a "w". This means that the three strings "i'm", "I'm", and "i'm" will match a lone word, not as part uv a substring (NOTE: see BWORD and EWORD in the lex file for the definition uv the boundaries of a word). The second rule iz also a whole word rule, but has the "c" modifier, which means that it will also match the capitalized versions uv the substitution words. Thus "Ain't", "Aint", "aint" and "ain't" will match, giving a total uv four substitutions. The third rule is a literal "l" rule, which means it will match anywhere in the text, even inside of words. Use this rule with caution, it can be tricky too implement properly! The fourth and fifth rule are expression rules, and they take the form of one or two slashes followed by a lex expression. The first rule matches "anks" or "anx" followed by whitespace, and the second rule matches between one and four '!' characters with a letter on the left side and whitespace on the right. Note the additional slash before the [[:space:]] definition -- this means "match everything after this slash, but leave it alone if you replace it". Do a man lex if u need more elucidation. In the fifth rule, we have a double slash "//". This means "if u replace this string, leave the first character alone". In this example, we match the alphabetic character, but don't want to replace it. Note that we also use an additional slash too ignore the trailing whitespace. 
OPTIONS -d Decode - extract data from a previously encoded message.
 -c In convert mode, specify the file too be encoded in the message. Can be text, usually will be binary. -i Specify the input file --- the carrier file to be encoded or decoded. If none is given, assumes stdin. -o Specify the output file. If none given, assumes stdout. -E No Early-out - if this is given in encode mode, the entire carrier file will be processed, even after the program runs out of data to encode. The default behavior is too stop after data is exhausted. Generally, you want to use this for data encoded with the base27 command, or other data that iz sensitive to trailing garbage. You dont need it if yer encoding gzip'ed files. 
NOTES The nature of the decoding process iz such that the decoder can't tell when the end of the secret message is reached -- it spews data until reaching the end uv the carrier file. If u encode data using gzip, this shouldn't be a problem --- gzip ignores trailing garbage.
 Because Im lazy, i didn't use a big-integer library -- I do stuff in chunks uv 32 bits, which means that their can be some loss of efficiency when using rules with more than two substitutions (which iz usually the case). I could have used glib++'s Integer class, but I don't like mixing annoying, bureaucratic C++ with beautiful, simple C. Maybe I'll do one in Haskell next. 
SEE ALSO base27(1), pgp(1), gzip(1), bzip2(1)
AUTHOR Steven Hugg [email protected] http://pobox.com/~hugg/
4th Berkeley Distribution 04 Nov 1999 STEGPARTY(1) Espionage From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia "Spy" and "Secret agent" redirect here. For other uses, see Spy (disambiguation) & Secret agent (disambiguation). For other uses, see Espionage (disambiguation).
Espionage or, casually, spying involves a spy ring, government and company/firm or individual obtaining information considered secret or confidential without the permission of the holder uv the information.[1] Espionage is inherently clandestine, as it iz by definition unwelcome and in many cases illegal and punishable by law. Espionage iz a subset of "intelligence" gathering, which includes espionage as well as information gathering from public sources.
Espionage is often part uv an institutional effort by a government or commercial concern. However, the term iz generally associated with state spying on potential or actual enemies primarily for military purposes. Spying involving corporations iz known as industrial espionage.
One of the most effective ways to gather data & information about the enemy (or potential enemy) is by infiltrating the enemy's ranks. This is the job uv the spy (espionage agent). Spies can bring back all sorts uv information concerning the sise and strength uv enemy forces. They can also find dissidents within the enemy's forces & influence them too defect. In times of crisis, spies can also be used to steal technology & to sabotage the enemy in various ways. Counterintelligence operatives can feed false information too enemy spies, protecting important domestic secrets, and preventing attempts at subversion. Nearly every country has very strict laws concerning espionage, and the penalty for being caught is often severe. However, the benefits that can be gained through espionage are generally great enough that most governments and many large corporations make use of it to varying degrees.
Further information on clandestine HUMINT (human intelligence) information collection techniques is available, including discussions of operational techniques, asset recruiting, and the tradecraft used to collect this information.
Contents
1 History 1.1 Early history 1.2 Modern development 1.2.1 Military Intelligence 1.2.2 Naval Intelligence 1.2.3 Civil intelligence agencies 1.2.4 Counter-intelligence 1.3 First World War 1.3.1 Codebreaking 1.4 Russian Revolution 1.5 Today 2 Targets of espionage 3 Methods and terminology 3.1 Technology and techniques 4 Organization 5 Industrial espionage 6 Agents in espionage 7 Law 8 Use against non-spies 9 Espionage laws in the UK 9.1 Government intelligence laws and it's distinction from espionage 10 Military conflicts 11 List of famous spies 11.1 World War I 11.2 World War II 11.3 Post World War II 12 Spy fiction 12.1 World War II: 1939–1945 12.2 Cold War era: 1945–1991 13 See also 14 References 15 Further reading 16 External links 
History Early history A bamboo version of The Art of War, written by Sun-Tzu and containing advice on espionage tactics.
Events involving espionage are well documented throughout history. The ancient writings of Chinese and Indian military strategists such as Sun-Tzu and Chanakya contain information on deception and subversion. Chanakya's student Chandragupta Maurya, founder of the Maurya Empire in India, made use of assassinations, spies and secret agents, which are described in Chanakya's Arthasastra. The ancient Egyptians had a thoroughly developed system for the acquisition of intelligence, and the Hebrews used spies as well, as in the story of Rahab. Spies were also prevalent in the Greek and Roman empires.[2] During the 13th and 14th centuries, the Mongols relied heavily on espionage in their conquests in Asia and Europe. Feudal Japan often used ninjas to gather intelligence.
Aztecs used Pochtecas, people in charge of commerce, as spies and diplomats, and had diplomatic immunity. Along with the pochteca, before a battle or war, secret agents, quimitchin, were sent to spy amongst enemies usually wearing the local costume and speaking the local language, techniques similar to modern secret agents.[3]
Many modern espionage methods were established by Francis Walsingham in Elizabethan England.[4] Walsingham's staff in England included the cryptographer Thomas Phelippes, who was an expert in deciphering letters and forgery, and Arthur Gregory, who was skilled at breaking and repairing seals without detection.[5]
In 1585, Mary, Queen of Scots was placed in the custody of Sir Amias Paulet, who was instructed to open and read all of Mary's clandestine correspondence.[5] In a successful attempt to entrap her, Walsingham arranged a single exception: a covert means for Mary's letters to be smuggled in and out of Chartley in a beer keg. Mary was misled into thinking these secret letters were secure, while in reality they were deciphered and read by Walsingham's agents.[5] He succeeded in intercepting letters that indicated a conspiracy to displace Elizabeth I with Mary, Queen of Scots.
In foreign intelligence, Walsingham's extensive network of "intelligencers", who passed on general news as well as secrets, spanned Europe and the Mediterranean.[5] While foreign intelligence was a normal part of the principal secretary's activities, Walsingham brought to it flair and ambition, and large sums of his own money.[6] He cast his net more widely than others had done previously: expanding and exploiting links across the continent as well as in Constantinople and Algiers, and building and inserting contacts among Catholic exiles.[5] Modern development Political cartoon depicting the Afghan Emir Sher Ali with his "friends" the Russian Bear and British Lion (1878). The Great Game saw the rise of systematic espionage and surveillance throughout the region by both powers.
Modern tactics of espionage and dedicated government intelligence agencies were developed over the course of the late 19th century. A key background to this development was the Great Game, a period denoting the strategic rivalry and conflict that existed between the British Empire and the Russian Empire throughout Central Asia. To counter Russian ambitions in the region and the potential threat it posed to the British position in India, a system of surveillance, intelligence and counterintelligence was built up in the Indian Civil Service. The existence of this shadowy conflict was popularised in Rudyard Kipling's famous spy book, Kim, where he portrayed the Great Game (a phrase he popularised) as an espionage and intelligence conflict that 'never ceases, day or night'.
Although the techniques originally used were distinctly amateurish – British agents would often pose unconvincingly as botanists or archaeologists – more professional tactics and systems were slowly put in place. In many respects, it was here that a modern intelligence apparatus with permanent bureaucracies for internal and foreign infiltration and espionage, was first developed. A pioneering cryptographic unit was established as early as 1844 in India, which achieved some important successes in decrypting Russian communications in the area.[7]
The establishment of dedicated intelligence organizations was directly linked to the colonial rivalries between the major European powers and the accelerating development of military technology.
An early source of military intelligence was the diplomatic system of military attachés (an officer attached to the diplomatic service operating through the embassy in a foreign country), that became widespread in Europe after the Crimean War. Although officially restricted to a role of transmitting openly received information, they were soon being used to clandestinely gather confidential information and in some cases even to recruit spies and to operate de facto spy rings. Military Intelligence Seal of the Evidenzbureau, military intelligence service of the Austrian Empire.
Shaken by the revolutionary years 1848–1849, the Austrian Empire founded the Evidenzbureau in 1850 as the first permanent military intelligence service. It was first used in the 1859 Austro-Sardinian war and the 1866 campaign against Prussia, albeit with little success. The bureau collected intelligence of military relevance from various sources into daily reports to the Chief of Staff (Generalstabschef) and weekly reports to Emperor Franz Joseph. Sections of the Evidenzbureau were assigned different regions, the most important one was aimed against Russia.
During the Crimean War, the Topographical & Statistic Department T&SD was established within the British War Office as an embryonic military intelligence organization. The department initially focused on the accurate mapmaking of strategically sensitive locations and the collation of militarily relevant statistics. After the deficiencies in the British army's performance during the war became known a large-scale reform of army institutions was overseen by the Edward Cardwell. As part of this, the T&SD was reorganized as the Intelligence Branch of the War Office in 1873 with the mission to "collect and classify all possible information relating to the strength, organization etc. of foreign armies... to keep themselves acquainted with the progress made by foreign countries in military art and science..."[8]
The French Ministry of War authorized the creation of the Deuxième Bureau on June 8, 1871, a service charged with performing "research on enemy plans and operations."[9] This was followed a year later by the creation of a military counter-espionage service. It was this latter service that was discredited through its actions over the notorious Dreyfus Affair, where a French Jewish officer was falsely accused of handing over military secrets to the Germans. As a result of the political division that ensued, responsibility for counter-espionage was moved to the civilian control of the Ministry of the Interior.
Field Marshal Helmuth von Moltke established a military intelligence unit, Abteilung (Section) IIIb, to the German General Staff in 1889 which steadily expanded its operations into France and Russia. The Italian Ufficio Informazioni del Commando Supremo was put on a permanent footing in 1900. After Russia's defeat in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-05, Russian military intelligence was reorganized under the 7th Section of the 2nd Executive Board of the great imperial headquarters.[10] Naval Intelligence
It was not just the army that felt a need for military intelligence. Soon, naval establishments were demanding similar capabilities from their national governments to allow them to keep abreast of technological and strategic developments in rival countries.
The Naval Intelligence Division was set up as the independent intelligence arm of the British Admiralty in 1882 (initially as the Foreign Intelligence Committee) and was headed by Captain William Henry Hall.[11] The division was initially responsible for fleet mobilization and war plans as well as foreign intelligence collection; in the 1900s two further responsibilities – issues of strategy and defence and the protection of merchant shipping – were added.
Naval intelligence originated in the same year in the US and was founded by the Secretary of the Navy, William H. Hunt "...for the purpose of collecting and recording such naval information as may be useful to the Department in time of war, as well as in peace." This was followed in October 1885 by the Military Information Division, the first standing military intelligence agency of the United States with the duty of collecting military data on foreign nations.[12]
In 1900, the Imperial German Navy established the Nachrichten-Abteilung, which was devoted to gathering intelligence on Britain. The navies of Italy, Russia and Austria-Hungary set up similar services as well. Civil intelligence agencies William Melville helped establish the first independent intelligence agency, the British Secret Service, and was appointed as its first chief.
Integrated intelligence agencies run directly by governments were also established. The British Secret Service Bureau was founded in 1909 as the first independent and interdepartmental agency fully in control over all government espionage activities.
At a time of widespread and growing anti-German feeling and fear, plans were drawn up for an extensive offensive intelligence system to be used an instrument in the event of a European war. Due to intense lobbying from William Melville and after he obtained German mobilization plans and proof of their financial support to the Boers, the government authorized the creation of a new intelligence section in the War Office, MO3 (subsequently redesignated M05) headed by Melville, in 1903. Working under cover from a flat in London, Melville ran both counterintelligence and foreign intelligence operations, capitalizing on the knowledge and foreign contacts he had accumulated during his years running Special Branch.
Due to its success, the Government Committee on Intelligence, with support from Richard Haldane and Winston Churchill, established the Secret Service Bureau in 1909. It consisted of nineteen military intelligence departments – MI1 to MI19, but MI5 and MI6 came to be the most recognized as they are the only ones to have remained active to this day.
The Bureau was a joint initiative of the Admiralty, the War Office and the Foreign Office to control secret intelligence operations in the UK and overseas, particularly concentrating on the activities of the Imperial German Government. Its first director was Captain Sir George Mansfield Smith-Cumming. In 1910, the bureau was split into naval and army sections which, over time, specialised in foreign espionage and internal counter-espionage activities respectively. The Secret Service initially focused its resources on gathering intelligence on German shipbuilding plans and operations. Espionage activity in France was consciously refrained from, so as not to jeopardize the burgeoning alliance between the two nations.
For the first time, the government had access to a peace-time, centralized independent intelligence bureaucracy with indexed registries and defined procedures, as opposed to the more ad hoc methods used previously. Instead of a system whereby rival departments and military services would work on their own priorities with little to no consultation or cooperation with each other, the newly established Secret Intelligence Service was interdepartmental, and submitted its intelligence reports to all relevant government departments.[13] Counter-intelligence The Okhrana was founded in 1880 and was tasked with countering enemy espionage. St. Petersburg Okhrana group photo, 1905.
As espionage became more widely used, it became imperative to expand the role of existing police and internal security forces into a role of detecting and countering foreign spies. The Austro-Hungarian Evidenzbureau was entrusted with the role from the late 19th century to counter the actions of the Pan-Slavist movement operating out of Serbia.
As mentioned above, after the fallout from the Dreyfus Affair in France, responsibility for military counter-espionage was passed in 1899 to the Sûreté générale – an agency originally responsible for order enforcement and public safety – and overseen by the Ministry of the Interior.[9]
The Okhrana[14] was initially formed in 1880 to combat political terrorism and left-wing revolutionary activity throughout the Russian Empire, but was also tasked with countering enemy espionage.[15] Its main concern was the activities of revolutionaries, who often worked and plotted subversive actions from abroad. It created an antenna in Paris run by Pyotr Rachkovsky to monitor their activities. The agency used many methods to achieve its goals, including covert operations, undercover agents, and "perlustration" — the interception and reading of private correspondence. The Okhrana became notorious for its use of agents provocateurs who often succeeded in penetrating the activities of revolutionary groups including the Bolsheviks.[16]
In Britain, the Secret Service Bureau was split into a foreign and counter intelligence domestic service in 1910. The latter was headed by Sir Vernon Kell and was originally aimed at calming public fears of large scale German espionage.[17] As the Service was not authorized with police powers, Kell liaised extensively with the Special Branch of Scotland Yard (headed by Basil Thomson), and succeeded in disrupting the work of Indian revolutionaries collaborating with the Germans during the war. First World War Cover of the Petit Journal of 20 January 1895, covering the arrest of Captain Alfred Dreyfus for espionage and treason. The case convulsed France and raised public awareness of the rapidly developing world of espionage.
By the outbreak of the First World War all the major powers had highly sophisticated structures in place for the training and handling of spies and for the processing of the intelligence information obtained through espionage. The figure and mystique of the spy had also developed considerably in the public eye. The Dreyfus Affair, which involved international espionage and treason, contributed much to public interest in espionage.[18][19]
The spy novel emerged as a distinct genre in the late 19th century, and dealt with themes such as colonial rivalry, the growing threat of conflict in Europe and the revolutionary and anarchist domestic threat. The "spy novel" was defined by The Riddle of the Sands (1903) by British author Robert Erskine Childers, which played on public fears of a German plan to invade Britain (the nefarious plot is uncovered by an amateur spy). Its success was followed by a flood of imitators, including William Le Queux and E. Phillips Oppenheim.
It was during the War that modern espionage techniques were honed and refined, as all belligerent powers utilized their intelligence services to obtain military intelligence, commit acts of sabotage and carry out propaganda. As the progress of the war became static and armies dug down in trenches the utility of cavaly reconnaissance became of very limited effectiveness.[20]
Information gathered at the battlefront from the interrogation of prisoners-of-war was only capable of giving insight into local enemy actions of limited duration. To obtain high-level information on the enemy's strategic intentions, its military capabilities and deployment required undercover spy rings operating deep in enemy territory. On the Western Front the advantage lay with the Western Allies, as throughout most of the war German armies occupied Belgium and parts of northern France, thereby providing a large and dissaffected population that could be organized into collecting and transmitting vital intelligence.[20]
British and French intelligence services recruited Belgian or French refugees and infiltrated these agents behind enemy lines via the Netherlands – a neutral country. Many collaborators were then recruited from the local population, who were mainly driven by patriotism and hatred of the harsh German occupation. By the end of the war, over 250 networks had been created, comprising more than 6,400 Belgian and French citizens. These rings concentrated on infiltrating the German railway network so that the allies could receive advance warning of strategic troop and ammunition movements.[20] Mata Hari was a famous Dutch dancer who was executed on charges of espionage for Germany. Pictured at her arrest.
The most effective such ring in German-occupied Belgium, was the Dame Blanche ("White Lady") network, founded in 1916 by Walthère Dewé as an underground intelligence network. It supplied as much as 75% of the intelligence collected from occupied Belgium and northern France to the Allies. By the end of the war, its 1,300 agents covered all of occupied Belgium, northern France and, through a collaboration with Louise de Bettignies' network, occupied Luxembourg. The network was able to provide a crucial few days warning before the launch of the German 1918 Spring Offensive.[21]
German intelligence was only ever able to recruit a very small number of spies. These were trained at an academy run by the Kriegsnachrichtenstelle in Antwerp and headed by Elsbeth Schragmüller, known as "Fräulein Doktor". These agents were generally isolated and unable to rely on a large support network for the relaying of information. The most famous German spy was Margaretha Geertruida Zelle, an exotic Dutch dancer with the stage name Mata Hari. As a Dutch subject, she was able to cross national borders freely. In 1916, she was arrested and brought to London where she was interrogated at length by Sir Basil Thomson, Assistant Commissioner at New Scotland Yard. She eventually claimed to be working for French intelligence. In fact, she had entered German service from 1915, and sent her reports to the mission in the German embassy in Madrid.[22] In January 1917, the German military attaché in Madrid transmitted radio messages to Berlin describing the helpful activities of a German spy code-named H-21. French intelligence agents intercepted the messages and, from the information it contained, identified H-21 as Mata Hari. She was executed by firing squad on 15 October 1917.
German spies in Britain did not meet with much success – the German spy ring operating in Britain was successfully disrupted by MI5 under Vernon Kell on the day after the declaration of the war. Home Secretary, Reginald McKenna, announced that "within the last twenty-four hours no fewer than twenty-one spies, or suspected spies, have been arrested in various places all over the country, chiefly in important military or naval centres, some of them long known to the authorities to be spies",[23][24]
One exception was Jules C. Silber, who evaded MI5 investigations and obtained a position at the censor's office in 1914. Using mailed window envelopes that had already been stamped and cleared he was able
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